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Petar Nizamov 's investigations in english ! Investigative journalism is a form of journalism in which reporters deeply investigate a single topic of interest, such as serious crimes, political corruption, or corporate wrongdoing. An investigative journalist may spend months or years researching and preparing a report. Practitioners sometimes use the terms "watchdog reporting" or "accountability reporting." Most investigative journalism has traditionally been conducted by newspapers, wire services, and freelance journalists. With the decline in income through advertising, many traditional news services have struggled to fund investigative journalism, which is time-consuming and therefore expensive. Journalistic investigations are increasingly carried out by news organizations working together, even internationally (as in the case of the Panama Papers and Paradise Papers), or by organizations such as ProPublica, which have not operated previously as news publishers and which rely on the support of the public and benefactors to fund their work. The growth of media conglomerates in the U.S. since the 1980s has been accompanied by massive cuts in the budgets for investigative journalism. A 2002 study concluded "that investigative journalism has all but disappeared from the nation's commercial airwaves".[1] The empirical evidence for this is consistent with the conflicts of interest between the revenue sources for the media conglomerates and the mythology of an unbiased, dispassionate media: advertisers have reduced their spending with media that reported too many unfavorable details.[citation needed] The major media conglomerates have found ways to retain their audience without the risks of offending advertisers inherent in investigative journalism. Criminal investigation is an applied science that involves the study of facts that are then used to inform criminal trials. A complete criminal investigation can include searchinginterviewsinterrogationsevidence collection and preservation, and various methods of investigation.[1] Modern-day criminal investigations commonly employ many modern scientific techniques known collectively as forensic science. Criminal investigation is an ancient science that may have roots as far back as c. 1700 BCE in the writings of the Code of Hammurabi. In the code, it is suggested that both the accuser and the accused had the right to present evidence they collected.[2] In the modern era, criminal investigations are most often done by government police forcesPrivate investigators are also commonly hired to complete or assist in criminal investigations. An early recorded professional criminal investigator was the English constable. Around 1250 CE, it was recorded that the constable was to "... record...matters of fact, not matters of judgment and law."[3] (1956)under the state of Pakistan to include the investigation of criminal law and order to police and othere agency for investigate of crime.following are the law to 1975-2002 to be given to law enforcement and criminal investigation.

Investigative techniques

In seeking "indicators of suspicion" in investigations, suspects will need to have had:
  • Motive to commit the crime (for example, financial gain or to seek revenge)
  • Means to commit the crime (including tools and physical capabilities)
  • Opportunity to commit the crime (including being at the crime scene at the time of the offence)
They will also establish the relationships between the victim and any potential offenders.

Investigation priority bias problems and proposed solutions

Criminal investigation at the Lake Bodom murder scene on June 6, 1960, which is still an unsolved homicide case. Deputy Judge Arvi Vainio (center) leads the investigation.
After observing recent changes in the demographic composition of particular crimes during higher priority of their investigation, such as the increase of the percentage of women convicted for joining and fighting for terrorist organizations from a very low percentage (similar to those of murder and rape) to almost as many women as men (women in the 40–50 percent range in some jurisdictions) as the priority of investigating terror crimes increased, certain criminologists are expressing the notion that there may be more crimes that would change their demographics if they got higher priority. These criminologists theorize that in the case of limited budgets, criminal investigators rely on profiled and statistical likelihood of particular groups of people being convicted for the type of crimes that are being investigated, and ignore complaints that are filed about people who they consider less likely to commit the crimes or give the tracking or individual matching to the evidence lower priority. According to the hypotheses, even a minimal or nonexistent difference in the likelihood of committing crimes can be hidden behind a difference of a factor by many multiples in the likelihood of being convicted due to self-fulfilling prophecies in the statistics. These criminologists feel that criminals who are not getting caught, due to being profiled as unlikely offenders, are a major problem. Some of these criminologists propose an increased number of police officers. Others argue that investigations of the evidence are more expensive than police patrols and that not all crimes can be investigated, suggesting that profiling of criminal psychology should be replaced with randomized priorities of individual suspects within similar types of crime. The latter criminologists also argue that such randomization would not only fight hidden crimes by exposing the currently unsuspected criminals to the risk of being punished, but also that the abolition of profiling by forensic psychology and forensic psychiatry would be a monetary saving that could be used for investigation of technical evidence, tracking of criminals who are hiding, and other investigation work that can reduce the need to ignore complaints for budget reasons.   Petar Nizamov Petar Nizamov Petar Nizamov




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